Building your website on a shared server means that your pages may be affected by a neighboring site that devours too many server resources. For example, if that site receives a huge spike in traffic, your pages might load slowly—or not at all. Investing in a dedicated server greatly reduces this potential problem, plus it gives system administrators greater control over the apps and scripts that they can install on the server, too. Shared hosting is far more limited when it comes to what you're allowed to do, because everything you do could potentially affect the other sites with which you share the server. When you've got the server all to yourself, your scripts and apps won't impinge on anyone else's bandwidth or RAM.
The configurations used for our dedicated hosting solution are designed to suit professional needs. Depending on your usage, you might need a configuration with more RAM, bigger storage space, or a higher processing capacity. Furthermore, the different OVH dedicated server ranges are distinguished by their bandwidth capacity and range of associated services. You can also get anti-DDoS protection adapted for online gaming, a private network (vRack) with up to 10 Gb/s to allow you to connect your dedicated server to your infrastructure, or even hardware RAID. Choose the dedicated server that fits your needs.
The server must be able to handle a lot of visitors when your website experiences increased traffic. Online shops, for instance, tend to place high demands on the stability of server capacities. Many shop owners in the eCommerce segment prefer to know that their customer data is hosted on a server that is not shared with others. A dedicated server with “genuine” root access is the better choice in these cases. Moreover, a dedicated server offers more web server options.
Let’s assume that your web shop sells decorative items of all kinds. You will probably introduce lots of special offers for festive periods like Christmas or Easter. As a result, more email and telephone support will be required. In this case, for security reasons, it is advisable to set up different servers for the products (one for live operations, another for backups) and to connect them using a load balancer. You would then outsource the mail applications to a separate mail server and protect this server with a dedicated firewall.

Recognized for the excellent uptime and ability to handle large loads of traffic, you'll also no longer have to contend with noisy neighbors. Noisy neighbors can bog down the server, but with a Dedicated Server, your web application can perform at optimal speeds. Thus, favored by mission-critical businesses, E-Commerce sites and web pages with significant traffic.


Recently, we've added more formal uptime monitoring to our review process, and the results show that most Web hosts do an excellent job of keeping sites up and running. If they don't, they suffer for it in our scoring. Even if they get everything else right, sites with uptime problems aren't eligible for high scores. All services suffer ups and downs, sometimes for reasons beyond their control. Those sites that fail to address the problem are penalized accordingly.
Recently, we've added more formal uptime monitoring to our review process, and the results show that most Web hosts do an excellent job of keeping sites up and running. If they don't, they suffer for it in our scoring. Even if they get everything else right, sites with uptime problems aren't eligible for high scores. All services suffer ups and downs, sometimes for reasons beyond their control. Those sites that fail to address the problem are penalized accordingly.

FTP (file transfer protocol) is a convenient way of uploading and downloading files to and from a server. This requires a program like FileZilla (available free on the net) that you install on your local computer. But you can also use your browser to transfer files by FTP, although it is not as handy as an FTP program. Another advantage of FTP is that file transfer is lightning quick. You can also assign dedicated access rights. An FTP server is available to you, even with a VPS.


Providers often bill for dedicated servers on a fixed monthly price to include specific software packages. Over the years, software vendors realized the significant market opportunity to bundle their software with dedicated servers. They have since started introducing pricing models that allow dedicated hosting providers the ability to purchase and resell software based on reduced monthly fees.
Dedicated hosting services primarily differ from managed hosting services in that managed hosting services usually offer more support and other services. As such, managed hosting is targeted towards clients with less technical knowledge, whereas dedicated hosting services, or unmanaged hosting services, are suitable for web development and system administrator professionals.
The configurations used for our dedicated hosting solution are designed to suit professional needs. Depending on your usage, you might need a configuration with more RAM, bigger storage space, or a higher processing capacity. Furthermore, the different OVH dedicated server ranges are distinguished by their bandwidth capacity and range of associated services. You can also get anti-DDoS protection adapted for online gaming, a private network (vRack) with up to 10 Gb/s to allow you to connect your dedicated server to your infrastructure, or even hardware RAID. Choose the dedicated server that fits your needs. 

If you register a domain with Bluehost when signing up for a hosting account, there is a domain fee that is non-refundable. This not only covers our costs, but ensures that you won't lose your domain name. Regardless of the status of your hosting service, you'll be free to manage it, transfer it after any required lock periods, or simply point it elsewhere at your convenience. You retain ownership of your domain until the end of its registration period unless you elect to extend it.
A dedicated hosting service, dedicated server, or managed hosting service is a type of Internet hosting in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone else. This is more flexible than shared hosting, as organizations have full control over the server(s), including choice of operating system, hardware, etc. There is also another level of dedicated or managed hosting commonly referred to as complex managed hosting. Complex Managed Hosting applies to both physical dedicated servers, Hybrid server and virtual servers, with many companies choosing a hybrid (combination of physical and virtual) hosting solution. There are many similarities between standard and complex managed hosting but the key difference is the level of administrative and engineering support that the customer pays for – owing to both the increased size and complexity of the infrastructure deployment. The provider steps in to take over most of the management, including security, memory, storage and IT support. The service is primarily proactive in nature.[1] Server administration can usually be provided by the hosting company as an add-on service. In some cases a dedicated server can offer less overhead and a larger return on investment. Dedicated servers are hosted in data centers, often providing redundant power sources and HVAC systems. In contrast to colocation, the server hardware is owned by the provider and in some cases they will provide support for operating systems or applications.[citation needed]
Deploy complex applications, streaming media, high-end e-mail solutions, or just host multiple sites on one machine. Whatever your needs, all our solutions are provided on a world-class network connection and include 24x7 monitoring of the server and network availability. Our unmanaged dedicated servers provide you with full remote server administration capability and freedom.

Alexandra Leslie’s interest in website administration was sparked in her teens, priming her for a fast-paced career in managing, building, and contributing to online brands, including HostingAdvice, Forbes, and the blogs of prominent hosting providers. She brings to the table firsthand experience in reviewing web hosts, perfecting website design, optimizing content, and walking site owners through the steps that add up to a successful online presence. Today, she combines her extensive writing experience with technical understanding to unpack some of the most complex topics that daunt novice website owners, as well as the subjects that excite veteran technologists within the HostingAdvice readership.

Other software applications available are specialized web hosting specific programs called control panels. Control panel software is an all inclusive set of software applications, server applications, and automation tools that can be installed on a dedicated server. Control panels include integration into web servers, database applications, programming languages, application deployment, server administration tasks, and include the ability to automate tasks via a web based front end.

We offer the best managed Dedicated Server Solutions available combined with unbeatable support from the Most Helpful Humans in Hosting™. Available with Linux or Windows operating systems, our Dedicated Server Solutions also come with 24x7 Proactive Sonar Monitoring™ and ServerSecure hardening. We offer single processor and dual processor dedicated servers.


Building slightly more sophisticated IT structures like this is child’s play with the IONOS Cloud. This way you pay to assign more CPU power, RAM, and hard drive space to the various servers as soon as you launch a promotional deal. Between special offers, when you need fewer resources, you pay less— this allows you to save money, but preserve your flexibility.
There are many uses for a dedicated server: big data, machine learning, website and application hosting, backups and storage, infrastructure virtualisation, server clusters, business applications (CRM, ERP), and even online game hosting. This is why we offer several different dedicated server ranges, each of which are designed for a specific set of needs. Our sales and support teams will help you with your project, and can offer expert advice on which server to choose. 

By joining Liquid Web's Reseller Hosting Program, you'll be easily able to manage your hosting through the WHMCS Plugin. The Web Hosting Billing & Automation Platform (WHMCS) plugin helps streamline daily tasks within one centralized platform. From domain provisioning to billing management you can provide your customers with an enhanced hosting experience while receiving discounts towards your Liquid Web bill!
Microsoft offers software licenses through a program called the Service Provider License Agreement. The SPLA model provides use of Microsoft products through a monthly user or processor based fee. SPLA software includes the Windows Operating System, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server, Microsoft SharePoint and shoutcast hosting, and many other server based products.
The configurations used for our dedicated hosting solution are designed to suit professional needs. Depending on your usage, you might need a configuration with more RAM, bigger storage space, or a higher processing capacity. Furthermore, the different OVH dedicated server ranges are distinguished by their bandwidth capacity and range of associated services. You can also get anti-DDoS protection adapted for online gaming, a private network (vRack) with up to 10 Gb/s to allow you to connect your dedicated server to your infrastructure, or even hardware RAID. Choose the dedicated server that fits your needs.
At Rentacomputer.com, not only do we offer a large variety of servers to fill any purpose a company could need a server for - we also offer servers from a variety of brands in the industry. When you rent a server from Rentacomputer.com, you can expect a server best suited for your rental needs from a selection of Dell, HP, IBM, and Sun Oracle servers.
Dedicated servers sound pretty great, right? They are. That said, you should be aware of their relatively high prices. Setting up shop on a dedicated server will likely cost you more than $100 per month; shared servers, on the other hand, are far less expensive. The cheapest web hosting services will lease you space on the web for well under $10 per month. In addition, you'll need to handle firewalls and maintenance yourself unless you opt for a managed server, which costs even more.
A cursory glance at the many web hosting services we've listed here reveals many similar-looking offerings, but the discerning eye will identify some subtle differences. You'll want a dedicated server with significant amounts of disk space—preferably 1TB or more—for storing files. You can typically choose either a traditional hard drive or a solid-state drive as your website's storage medium. There's a trade-off, however. Solid-state drives are often faster and more reliable than HDDs, but they cost more money and have smaller storage capacities. Traditional hard drives, on the other hand, have large capacities and lower prices but aren't quite as resilient as their SSD counterparts. Unless you truly need blazingly fast storage, a traditional hard drive will get the job done.
Lastly, and we can’t stress this enough, think long and hard about the reliability and support you’ll get from a potential dedicated host. You want an always-online network backed by an always-there-for-you support team. Whenever you hear that the support technicians are all Tier II SysAdmins or Red Hat certified or anything along those lines, that’s a good thing! It means they know what they’re doing.

Users of VPS hosting have allocated resources just like Dedicated hosting users, however the amount of available resources on VPS servers may still not be what a website needs. For example, VPS servers often start at 2GB of RAM, whereas Dedicated servers often start with at least 4GB of RAM available. In short, Dedicated hosting allows for the same full customization and control of a VPS server, but with even more horsepower.
A Cloud VPS is an emulation of a computer, also known as a virtual private server, that lives within a parent server and shares resources with other virtual servers. As where a Dedicated Server is a stand-alone, physical server that does not share resources. As with fixed resources, scarcity can lead to less than optimal performance for the resource-intensive application, which is why Dedicated Servers often outperform VPS instances.
To date, no industry standards have been set to clearly define the management role of dedicated server providers. What this means is that each provider will use industry standard terms, but each provider will define them differently. For some dedicated server providers, fully managed is defined as having a web based control panel while other providers define it as having dedicated system engineers readily available to handle all server and network related functions of the dedicated server provider.
If you register a domain with Bluehost when signing up for a hosting account, there is a domain fee that is non-refundable. This not only covers our costs, but ensures that you won't lose your domain name. Regardless of the status of your hosting service, you'll be free to manage it, transfer it after any required lock periods, or simply point it elsewhere at your convenience. You retain ownership of your domain until the end of its registration period unless you elect to extend it.
Ample RAM (5GB or more), e-commerce options for selling products, 24/7 customer service, and unlimited monthly data transfers are highly sought-after features, too. Many web hosts cap their dedicated monthly data transfer offerings at 16GB, which is probably fine for most users. Some web hosts offer unlimited monthly data transfers, but they are few and far between, and you need to read the terms of service very carefully to understand just what "unlimited" means to the host in question. In addition, companies that offer dedicated web hosting typically offer daily backups, security options, and malware detection and removal—all very important factors in your website's day-to-day operation.
All of these features may look impressive, but if you don't know what Dedicated Hosting is in the first place, these features probably don't matter much to you at all. When you purchase a Dedicated Server from A2 Hosting, you are getting all of the resources listed with the server plan of your choice. You do not share these resources with any other user or customer. The bandwidth, RAM and data transfer are for your use exclusively. With all of these resources at your disposal, you can expect your hosting service to be both highly reliable with top performance.
The configurations used for our dedicated hosting solution are designed to suit professional needs. Depending on your usage, you might need a configuration with more RAM, bigger storage space, or a higher processing capacity. Furthermore, the different OVH dedicated server ranges are distinguished by their bandwidth capacity and range of associated services. You can also get anti-DDoS protection adapted for online gaming, a private network (vRack) with up to 10 Gb/s to allow you to connect your dedicated server to your infrastructure, or even hardware RAID. Choose the dedicated server that fits your needs.
Don't see a service that fits your specific hosting needs? Don't worry, we have you covered! We offer a wide range of solutions bound to meet your requirements ranging from Shared, Reseller, VPS, Dedicated and everything in between including Managed WordPress Hosting. Looking for a new domain name or SSL Certificate? We've got you covered there as well! Just click the button below to visit our Web Hosting comparison page. That's where you'll see a full breakdown of all of our high speed hosting services.

There are two main factors that make a dedicated server different from a cloud instance. Firstly, the machine's raw performance is different: there is no virtualisation layer consuming resources on a dedicated server, so you are guaranteed full use of the physical resources. The second difference concerns the level of server administration. With a dedicated server, you manage everything from its configuration to the data hosted on it, and you are also responsible for ensuring that it is secure. It will therefore give you the option of a more advanced installation, which is essential for the use of certain business applications (for example). The main benefit of a dedicated solution is the total freedom you enjoy as a user. However, if you would like to avoid technical management and concentrate solely on your web project, then OVH Public Cloud instances are the best solution for you. Just need to build a simple website? Take a look at our shared hosting solutions, which offer you a hosting platform at an unbeatable cost, with the configuration fully managed by OVH.

Advertiser Disclosure: Some of the products that appear on this site are from companies from which QuinStreet receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site including, for example, the order in which they appear. QuinStreet does not include all companies or all types of products available in the marketplace.
Remember how you felt waking up the first morning after moving into a house that’s all yours, without roommates or parents? Every decision was yours and yours alone to make — from how loud and late the music is played to what type of midnight snack you can chow down on. More responsible adults control which alarm company to trust with your security and safety, along with whether to hire a housekeeping or lawn service or do all domestic maintenance yourself.
To date, no industry standards have been set to clearly define the management role of dedicated server providers. What this means is that each provider will use industry standard terms, but each provider will define them differently. For some dedicated server providers, fully managed is defined as having a web based control panel while other providers define it as having dedicated system engineers readily available to handle all server and network related functions of the dedicated server provider.
FTP (file transfer protocol) is a convenient way of uploading and downloading files to and from a server. This requires a program like FileZilla (available free on the net) that you install on your local computer. But you can also use your browser to transfer files by FTP, although it is not as handy as an FTP program. Another advantage of FTP is that file transfer is lightning quick. You can also assign dedicated access rights. An FTP server is available to you, even with a VPS.

There are two main factors that make a dedicated server different from a cloud instance. Firstly, the machine's raw performance is different: there is no virtualisation layer consuming resources on a dedicated server, so you are guaranteed full use of the physical resources. The second difference concerns the level of server administration. With a dedicated server, you manage everything from its configuration to the data hosted on it, and you are also responsible for ensuring that it is secure. It will therefore give you the option of a more advanced installation, which is essential for the use of certain business applications (for example). The main benefit of a dedicated solution is the total freedom you enjoy as a user. However, if you would like to avoid technical management and concentrate solely on your web project, then OVH Public Cloud instances are the best solution for you. Just need to build a simple website? Take a look at our shared hosting solutions, which offer you a hosting platform at an unbeatable cost, with the configuration fully managed by OVH.
We understand web sites, businesses and projects come in all shapes and sizes. Why should your server be "one size fits all"? At A2 Hosting we let you design your perfect server. Whether you want more RAM, storage or configuration, we've got you covered. With our Flex Server Deployment, you should even have access to your server in 30-minutes or less. We bet you'll have a hard time even having a pizza delivered that fast!
We understand web sites, businesses and projects come in all shapes and sizes. Why should your server be "one size fits all"? At A2 Hosting we let you design your perfect server. Whether you want more RAM, storage or configuration, we've got you covered. With our Flex Server Deployment, you should even have access to your server in 30-minutes or less. We bet you'll have a hard time even having a pizza delivered that fast!
We offer the best managed Dedicated Server Solutions available combined with unbeatable support from the Most Helpful Humans in Hosting™. Available with Linux or Windows operating systems, our Dedicated Server Solutions also come with 24x7 Proactive Sonar Monitoring™ and ServerSecure hardening. We offer single processor and dual processor dedicated servers.
Building slightly more sophisticated IT structures like this is child’s play with the IONOS Cloud. This way you pay to assign more CPU power, RAM, and hard drive space to the various servers as soon as you launch a promotional deal. Between special offers, when you need fewer resources, you pay less— this allows you to save money, but preserve your flexibility.

We offer the best managed Dedicated Server Solutions available combined with unbeatable support from the Most Helpful Humans in Hosting™. Available with Linux or Windows operating systems, our Dedicated Server Solutions also come with 24x7 Proactive Sonar Monitoring™ and ServerSecure hardening. We offer single processor and dual processor dedicated servers. 

FTP (file transfer protocol) is a convenient way of uploading and downloading files to and from a server. This requires a program like FileZilla (available free on the net) that you install on your local computer. But you can also use your browser to transfer files by FTP, although it is not as handy as an FTP program. Another advantage of FTP is that file transfer is lightning quick. You can also assign dedicated access rights. An FTP server is available to you, even with a VPS.
Recognized for the excellent uptime and ability to handle large loads of traffic, you'll also no longer have to contend with noisy neighbors. Noisy neighbors can bog down the server, but with a Dedicated Server, your web application can perform at optimal speeds. Thus, favored by mission-critical businesses, E-Commerce sites and web pages with significant traffic.
Dedicated web hosting is an attractive option for people and companies who require a rock-solid website foundation. Sure, it's more expensive than shared web hosting, but you get greater reliability and more flexibility in exchange for the additional money that you pay. We've reviewed many dedicated hosting services and included our nine favorites in this guide. The chart above gives you a quick overview of the features you can find with each service. It includes pricing, hardware specs, data caps, and other pertinent information. If you want a more in-depth look at dedicated web hosting services, take a look at the blurbs—and links to full reviews—below.
**This special offer gives you free setup for So you Start dedicated server rental. Offer valid for new orders placed with a 6-month or 12-month subscription (excluding renewals), provided that the total price applicable to the subscription period is paid for up-front. This offer applies to orders placed between 26th June 2019, 14:00 BST, and 30th September 2019, 14:00 BST, subject to the availability of the server chosen, with the time at which the order was processed by So you Start used as proof in the event of any disputes. Cannot be used in conjunction with other promotional offers currently available. To subscribe, you will need to confirm that you accept the So you Start Terms & conditions.
Recognized for the excellent uptime and ability to handle large loads of traffic, you'll also no longer have to contend with noisy neighbors. Noisy neighbors can bog down the server, but with a Dedicated Server, your web application can perform at optimal speeds. Thus, favored by mission-critical businesses, E-Commerce sites and web pages with significant traffic.
Recently, we've added more formal uptime monitoring to our review process, and the results show that most Web hosts do an excellent job of keeping sites up and running. If they don't, they suffer for it in our scoring. Even if they get everything else right, sites with uptime problems aren't eligible for high scores. All services suffer ups and downs, sometimes for reasons beyond their control. Those sites that fail to address the problem are penalized accordingly.
One of the areas in which a terminal server may be helpful is if a company wants to give all its staff access to certain programs without installing them individually on each computer. Example: a terminal server is a good way of running image processing software if it is used only sporadically. The benefits: programs are updated only on the terminal server and are then available to all users. It is also a good way of keeping license costs down. What’s more, admins can use the terminal server to monitor and maintain the system externally..
Remember how you felt waking up the first morning after moving into a house that’s all yours, without roommates or parents? Every decision was yours and yours alone to make — from how loud and late the music is played to what type of midnight snack you can chow down on. More responsible adults control which alarm company to trust with your security and safety, along with whether to hire a housekeeping or lawn service or do all domestic maintenance yourself.
Want to buy a Dedicated Server? You will need to begin investigating the type of hardware you want to buy and wait for it to be shipped. That doesn't even include the time it will take for you to configure your server. That could take days or possibly weeks. Do you have that kind of time? What if you outgrow your Dedicated Server? Rent a Dedicated Server from A2 Hosting and it'll be ready for you in 30-minutes or less! 

Dedicated servers continue to be the economical choice for providing an exclusive set of resources solely devoted to your IT needs. With our bare metal servers, you will benefit from increased performance, greater security and exclusive use of the servers system and network resources.  Our dedicated servers are ideal for any of your services that require high traffic, high security, or complex configurations (i.e. e-commerce, dynamic content, database applications and multimedia apps) are better suited for a dedicated server.
Alexandra Leslie’s interest in website administration was sparked in her teens, priming her for a fast-paced career in managing, building, and contributing to online brands, including HostingAdvice, Forbes, and the blogs of prominent hosting providers. She brings to the table firsthand experience in reviewing web hosts, perfecting website design, optimizing content, and walking site owners through the steps that add up to a successful online presence. Today, she combines her extensive writing experience with technical understanding to unpack some of the most complex topics that daunt novice website owners, as well as the subjects that excite veteran technologists within the HostingAdvice readership.
Recognized for the excellent uptime and ability to handle large loads of traffic, you'll also no longer have to contend with noisy neighbors. Noisy neighbors can bog down the server, but with a Dedicated Server, your web application can perform at optimal speeds. Thus, favored by mission-critical businesses, E-Commerce sites and web pages with significant traffic.
The server must be able to handle a lot of visitors when your website experiences increased traffic. Online shops, for instance, tend to place high demands on the stability of server capacities. Many shop owners in the eCommerce segment prefer to know that their customer data is hosted on a server that is not shared with others. A dedicated server with “genuine” root access is the better choice in these cases. Moreover, a dedicated server offers more web server options.
Ample RAM (5GB or more), e-commerce options for selling products, 24/7 customer service, and unlimited monthly data transfers are highly sought-after features, too. Many web hosts cap their dedicated monthly data transfer offerings at 16GB, which is probably fine for most users. Some web hosts offer unlimited monthly data transfers, but they are few and far between, and you need to read the terms of service very carefully to understand just what "unlimited" means to the host in question. In addition, companies that offer dedicated web hosting typically offer daily backups, security options, and malware detection and removal—all very important factors in your website's day-to-day operation.

The answer to this question largely depends on two factors. Are you new to server technology and not very interested? In this case, Windows is the easiest option to get where you want to go. Do you already have experience with Linux or would you like to familiarize yourself with this operating system? If so, Linux gives you more freedoms to configure your server, and you will be using an operating system that is less vulnerable to attacks from the Internet. Linux is also open source and therefore free.
Providers often bill for dedicated servers on a fixed monthly price to include specific software packages. Over the years, software vendors realized the significant market opportunity to bundle their software with dedicated servers. They have since started introducing pricing models that allow dedicated hosting providers the ability to purchase and resell software based on reduced monthly fees.
Recently, we've added more formal uptime monitoring to our review process, and the results show that most Web hosts do an excellent job of keeping sites up and running. If they don't, they suffer for it in our scoring. Even if they get everything else right, sites with uptime problems aren't eligible for high scores. All services suffer ups and downs, sometimes for reasons beyond their control. Those sites that fail to address the problem are penalized accordingly.
Building slightly more sophisticated IT structures like this is child’s play with the IONOS Cloud. This way you pay to assign more CPU power, RAM, and hard drive space to the various servers as soon as you launch a promotional deal. Between special offers, when you need fewer resources, you pay less— this allows you to save money, but preserve your flexibility.
Let’s assume that your web shop sells decorative items of all kinds. You will probably introduce lots of special offers for festive periods like Christmas or Easter. As a result, more email and telephone support will be required. In this case, for security reasons, it is advisable to set up different servers for the products (one for live operations, another for backups) and to connect them using a load balancer. You would then outsource the mail applications to a separate mail server and protect this server with a dedicated firewall.
The two environments have plenty of overlapping qualities, but most importantly Dedicated Server render greater security, customization and excellent availability. With granular control, you are free to customize hardware components like disk space or RAM and installation of unique operating systems. More substantial computing power (CPUs) and disk space allow Dedicated servers enhanced performance for high amounts of traffic. When uptime and performance are critical to your business Dedicated Servers are second to none for hosting.
Remember how you felt waking up the first morning after moving into a house that’s all yours, without roommates or parents? Every decision was yours and yours alone to make — from how loud and late the music is played to what type of midnight snack you can chow down on. More responsible adults control which alarm company to trust with your security and safety, along with whether to hire a housekeeping or lawn service or do all domestic maintenance yourself.
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